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Modalities

Ultrasound

Used for pain relief, aid with tissue healing by increasing blood flow, gentle massage to area being treated. May also help to break up stony deposits in tissue.

Electrical stimulation (IFC, TENS, NMES)

Electrodes placed on area to be worked on. Using different waveforms and settings, this can be used for pain relief, muscle reeducation, decreasing swelling, improving blood circulation.

Iontophoresis/phonophoresis

Using electrical current or ultrasound to mechanically push medication through skin to superficial areas, usually used for pain relief and to reduce inflammation.

Ice

Used to decrease inflammation, swelling, pain, muscle spasm and prevents excessive tissue damage following injury.

Heat

Used to decrease joint stiffness, decrease muscle spasm, increase blood flow.

Mechanical traction

Distraction (“pulling”) to spine that helps open up space between vertebrae and unloads the discs, also stretches spinal musculature.

Kinesiotape

Elastic tape applied to skin using different techniques to facilitate or inhibit muscles that may result in pain relief and feeling of support/stability in joints and muscles, can also be used to decrease swelling.